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Psychoanalysis and Educational Practice - A Possible Relation?
Psychology and psychiatry construct models, clinical habits of behavior, pictures, types of personality, reception systems, etc. Objective of these models would be, in the words of Comte, �to know; to be able to foresee�. To find the common traces to all pathology would serve of practical guide for the therapeutical experient. The illusion would be to arrive in port to the moment when everything in the field is explained of beforehand. To find so many laws, concepts and characteristics where all singular trace is explicable by the generality. Illusion supported from the presumption of the particular individual in this case that of a universal, late or early order for scientific knowing. On the other hand, psychoanalysis operates on the citizen of science. Citizen that is included in this world to be able to consist as such. Science would be the ideology of the suppression of the citizen. And psychoanalysis would operate on what science globe and at the same time leaves to escape, as the interior, the improvisation, the feeling. (COUTINHO, 2000)
The first attempt of an operational joint of Psychoanalysis and Pedagogy can be observed since 1909 from personal texts between the Pedagogical Researcher Oskar Pfister and Freud. The first one produces two scientific texts of Pedagogy where are incorporated ideas inherent to psychoanalysis and requests the adhesion of the psychoanalytical theory to the operational Pedagogy. Freud answers affirmatively and thus a solid interlocution is initiated with an epistolar intercourse during following the thirty years (PATTO, 1996).
The demands of some educators from now on, are of diverse nature in the plan of the joint to know, pedagogy convokes psychoanalysis to a conjunction that tries to restore new fields. The result would be a kind of Psychoanalytical Psychopedagogy. In the level of the empirical problems, school (through its direct and indirect educators), requests the practical and specialized tool that generates solutions to conflicts that burst and interrupt the daily and normative functioning of the institution. For another part, we can find a large number of offers of knowledge and tasks, which, are considered as a fount of deregulation or occultation the same origin of the demand. It has been remembered as the example to the proper Freud in his preface to the book of August Aichhorn where he writes �� the educator must possess psychoanalytical formation� (OLIVEIRA, 2003).
Ana Freud (OLIVEIRA, 2003), is another eloquent example when she speaks to educators in their proper language, and inform them on the infantile development since perspective of the psychoanalysis (psychology of I). She tries to inform the teachers, to make them understand the infantile psychological drives of reproduction in order to understand their learners. She writes a small text recommending psychoanalytical experience as the optimum way to educational preparation.
There are several approaches that try to explain the joint of psychoanalysis e (in, for, with) education. Thus, we see the following intentions among others:
- Psychoanalysis to know the unconscious determination of the pedagogical relation and to be able �to educate in scientific form�.
- Psychoanalysis to decide the problems derived from the presence of the pupils who do not answer adequately to the requirements of the school.
- Psychoanalysis so that the professors �psychoanalyze� themselves.
We can revise the difficulties in the attempt to articulate psychoanalysis, as a discipline that points its ways to know about the �irrationality of the behavior�, with the field of the rationality where is inserted the production and reproduction of the knowledge. In the last years are more and more abundant the works that point Psychoanalysis as a valid way to observe and to work on the delimitation of these fields.
Mezan (2002, P. 214) says:
�� the knowledge of the psychoanalytical theory that acquires the educator will have as barrier that hinders its application the proper sexuality and repression�.e what we want to stress,�.in all attempt of application of the psychoanalysis to the educative field is that, in the existing difference Unconscious knowing theoretically and clinically, they are played both reach and limits of such aspiration�.
It is obvious for any professional whose object of work is the individual person, the theory of the subject that contributes psychoanalysis must be part of his cultural luggage. Teacher cannot be himself it the edge of the process. We also assume that a professor who has passed through a psychoanalytical process will be more receptive to the aspects of the life of his pupils that in another way would be outside of the pertaining to school work. But in all times, not psychoanalyzed professors had been sensible to the concerns and problems of their pupils. Also we cannot deny that many children or adolescents present hidden problematic individual situations that lead them to answer with effectiveness to school petitions.
COUTINHO, Maria Tereza da Cunha e MOREIRA, M�rcia. Psicologia da Educa��o: um estudo dos processos psicol�gicos de desenvolvimento e aprendizagem humanos. Belo Horizonte-MG: Editora l�, 2000.
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PE�A, J. F. (1986). Plat�o e Banquete. Letras da Coisa no. 3. Curitiba, PR: Monografia Coisa Freudiana - Transmiss�o em Psican�lise.
KUPFER, Maria Cristina. Educa��o para o Futuro: Psican�lise e Educa��o. SP, Editora Escuta Monografias, 2000.
PATTO, Maria Helena Souza. A Produ��o do Fracasso Escolar. S�o Paulo, T. A. Queiroz, Editor, 1996.
HASS,C.(2000). A coordena��o pedag�gica nuna perspectiva interdisciplinar. In: QUELUZ, A. (org.). Interdisciplinaridade. S�o Paulo, Monografia Pioneira.
FREUD, Sigmund. O Mal-Estar na Civiliza��o; Vol. XXI (1927-1931); Edi��o Standard Brasileira: Imago Editora Ltada, RJ. Pg.95.
BERMAN,M. Tudo que � s�lido desmancha no ar: a aventura da modernidade(trad. Carlos F. Mois�s, Ana Maria L. Ioriatti) . S�o Paulo: Monografias Cia das Letras,1986)
HERRMANN, F. O que � Psican�lise? S�o Paulo:Brasiliense,1984
HOBSBAWN, E.. A Era dos Extremos: o breve s�culo XX: 1914-1991(trad. Marcos Santarrita). S�o Paulo: Monografias Cia das Letras,1995.
MEZAN, R. Freud Pensador da Cultura, S�o Paulo:Brasiliense, 1985.
MEZAN, R. Interfaces, S�o Paulo: TCC - Companhia das Letras,2002.
OLIVEIRA, M. L. Por que a Monografia de Psican�lise na Educa��o : fragmentos. In: revista Perfil, Monografia n� IX, 2003, Departamento de Psicologia Cl�nica, FCL, UNESP, Assis, SP, pp. 25-35.
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